by Wahba, W. N., Rushdya Rabee Ali Hassan, R. R. A., Mahmoud, A. Y. A. E. W. and Salim, E.
The study aims to examine and analyze one of the most famous marble papers in pattern, which is the French shell pattern; the latter is dated to the late 18th century in France. It also aims to accurately determine the nature and chemical composition of the colours, especially due to the scarcity of studies related to the art of historical Ebru. The morphology of marbling paper (Ebru) samples was investigated by Digi micro -USB mi-croscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Furthermore, the Raman microscopy technique detected the type of pigments or dyes used in this paper. The results re-vealed that inorganic pigments were used to manufacture ebru art, eliminating the widespread belief that organic pigments were the basis for decorating this type of art. Despite the splendour of the ebru art, it is a completely forgotten art that did not take a share of the study. The current study sheds light on the nature of the chemical composition of the colours used, especially because of the conflict between scientists about the use of dyes or inorganic pigments in the technique of this vanished art.