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Vol1.3

Chronology is the foundation of every archaeological research. Every single object, a text, or even the greatest monuments must be understood within their period of time. In certain occasions ancient authors have given a clear statement of the date of a piece but, even in these cases, we find ourselves with the task of translating ancient dates to our modern calendar system. To do that the first option that learned…
This paper is a review of the threats to the cultural heritage of Syria, recently brought to the forefront of current events because of the armed conflict happening there. We will discuss archeological sites designated as UNESCO (United Nations Scientific and Cultural Organization) World Heritage Sites and focus on the damage done to Syria’s cultural heritage not only in the past, specifically during colonial times, when foreign museums acquired so…
The application of 3D digital technologies in the archaeological research expands more and more during the last decades. 3D recording, visualisation, representation and reconstruction of archaeological sites, monuments and artefacts become almost a common trend in the archaeological work. Moreover, CAD reconstructions, 3D simulation, computer animation and other uses of computer systems change the traditional workflow. The archaeological experience, though, recognizes these tools more for the general public in order…
In this paper we will attempt to give a social interpretation of material culture through the comprehension of the symbolic nature of artefacts and the meanings of things in cultural process.  It is shown that cultural things are objects by which people tried to affect and influence their immediate environment. Such things, which acquired a social sense through becoming a focus of human activity and included in symbolic activity, began…
The period between the end of the fourth millennium BC and the beginning of the third millennium BC witnessed the transition from the Prehistoric Age t the Historic Ages, before the founding of the Akkadian Empire. In general, when moving from one age to another, there must be a short transition period that bears some of the characteristics of the previous age as well as some rudimentary features of the…
The large Iwan of Taq Bostan and its reliefs with a number of other reliefs of Sassanid era have always noticed due to the used beauty and art in its structure. However, there have been disagreements in recent centuries regarding to its antiquity and it is not clear that it belongs to which Sassanid kings due to the lack of an inscription on its iwan. In this regard, although most…
The large Iwan of Taq Bostan and its reliefs with a number of other reliefs of Sassanid era have always noticed due to the used beauty and art in its structure. However, there have been disagreements in recent centuries regarding to its antiquity and it is not clear that it belongs to which Sassanid kings due to the lack of an inscription on its iwan. In this regard, although most…

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